Elucidating biosynthetic pathways for vitamins and cofactors
As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent thiamine deficiency and disorders that result from it, including beriberi, Korsakoff's syndrome, and Korsakoff's psychosis. Its structure consists of an aminopyrimidine and a thiazole ring linked by a methylene bridge.
Other uses include maple syrup urine disease and Leigh's disease. The thiazole is substituted with methyl and hydroxyethyl side chains.
Cofactor Biosynthesis Ilka Haase and Markus Fischer Institute of Food Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Adelbert Bacher, Wolfgang Eisenreich and Felix Rohdich Institute of Biochemistry, Department Chemie, Technische Universitat MUnchen, MUnchen, Germany doi: 10.1002/9780470048672.wecb094 Whereas plants and certain microorganisms can generate all required coenzymes from CO or simple organic precursors, animals must obtain precursors (designated as vitamins) for a major fraction of their coenzymes from nutritional sources.
Still, most vitamins must be converted into the actual coenzymes by reactions catalyzed by animal enzymes.
This is in agreement with the absolute growth requirement for these vitamins in all protozoa of the family.
Also absent from the genomes of RTs are the genes for the synthesis of pantothenic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B6.
The biosynthetic pathways are regulated by riboswitches.This is also in agreement with the available data showing that RTs are auxotrophic for these essential vitamins.On the other hand, SHTs are autotrophic for such vitamins.Cofactor biosynthesis is a very broad and multifaceted topic. This article summarizes basic concepts of major cofactors.